Austin Gipsy

Austin-Gipsy-MKI-Cut-Away
Austin Gipsy Series I

It was in 1952 that the Austin Motor Company produced the Austin Champ under a military contract and was fitted with a Rolls Royce engine manufactured at Longbridge. The Champ was used by various Armies around the world. A civilian version was produced using the engine from the Austin A70 Hereford. It only sold in small numbers, and the Champ production ceased in 1956.

It is against this background that the Experimental Department looked at a completely new design, that would compete with the Land Rover, using the experiences gained with the Champ.

It really was starting with a clean sheet, one of the first decision they took was to adopt a new type of suspension that was called "Flexitor," which the army at their Bagshot Heath, Fighting Vehicles Research Department had been testing on a military trailer. So what impressed the Austin development engineers, the units did not need lubrication, and coped well with repeated impact over bumps. But would it be suitable for a four wheel drive vehicle, there was only one way to find out, build a prototype.


This was then carried out, and the team were happy with the results. One advantage with this system was that the units gave a natural damping to the suspension, and with the addition of hydraulic shock absorbers made for a controlled ride. The "Flexitor" units had been developed by Alex Moulton, who had produced the rubber cone on the Mini along with the hydrolastic on the 1100. They were manufactured by Moulton & Co Ltd. part of the Avon Group in Bradford-on-Avon. So using this system gave independent suspension all round by using trailing arms on which to mount the wheel hub.

Gipsy-Rear-Suspension

Prototypes were built and a road proving programme started, testing was carried out on test tracks and also a 200 mile daily round trip with a full ½ ton payload around the local countryside and back to the factory each day for inspection. The heating and comfort was fine in the summer, but in the winter period it was necessary to wear some heavy sweaters and coats. One of the early modifications was to re-routing the exhaust to exit at the RH side of the vehicle rather than to the rear, as in this position exhaust fumes were been pulled back into the interior.

At MIRA (the Motor Industries Research Assoc.) near Nuneaton Warwickshire, this purpose built facility, for hire to any interested automotive company, has the capability of testing virtually any type of vehicle from high speed cars to cross-country trucks. The facilities there consisted in those days of various types of track, rough road (Belgian Pave, which is largish smooth stones cemented into a road bed) off road track, dust tunnel, water splash trough even a banked high speed outer track. The Pave testing gave the equivalent of a total vehicle life in 2,000 miles of testing, so rough that drivers needed to switch after 30 minutes of driving.

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Pave testing at MIRA

From the outset it had been designed as a rugged cross-country vehicle, the chassis used oval section welded steel box-section, and had a wheel base of 90 inches, which was 2 inches longer that the SWB Land Rover. Attached to the chassis at six points was the all steel body (unlike the Land Rover aluminium body) which was made from sheet steel with box section reinforcement.

Austin-Gipsy-Assemble

The bodies were built and trimmed at Fisher & Ludlow. Although the steel bodies were put through the 'Rotodip' for protection against rust, in service rust did become a problem. The final painted and trimmed bodies were then transported to Longbridge for the final assemble (MK I). The MK II & MK IV were assembled at Adderley Park Birmingham.

Gipsy-Assemble-Line
Longbridge production East Works Series I


It was powered by the 2,199 cc four-cylinder petrol engine that was in the Austin A70 Hereford. It had proved to be reliable and although only producing 62 bhp @ 4,000 rpm power is not everything, torque is more important for this type of vehicle at 110 lbs/ft at just 1,500 rpm. Also available was a diesel engine of 2,178 cc which had its engine speed governed at 3,100 rpm and produced 55 bhp.

Gipsy-Petrol-Engine-Gipsy-Diesel-engine
Petrol - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Diesel


With a four-speed gear-box with synchromesh on all forward gears, and a transfer box giving the operator the choice of either rear-wheel drive in high ratio, neutral for power take-off or four wheel drive in low ratio. Maximum payload was put at 10 cwt,along with a maximum drawbar pull 3000 lbs. This transfer box was superior to the one fitted to the Land Rover as with a little practice you could change between low and high ratio whilst on the move.

With Land Rover having such a hold on the market, it was difficult for the Gipsy
(or Gippo as it was nicknamed at the factory with typical Birmingham slang) to be recognised a serious competitor. On factor was that it was only available in one chassis length, with the Land Rover having two with numerous body styles. Various publicity stunts were carried out to arouse public interest. In Birmingham the local car dealer had a 1 in 1 slope to prove that the Gipsy was a serious competitor. It attracted good media publicity, but the police were not keen as they felt that motorist would be distracted seeing the Gipsy on the roof, so after a few weeks it was all removed.

Gipsy-1-to-1-slope
Birmingham Garage 1960

Gipsy-Slope

Longbridge used the idea and constructed its own 1 in 1 slope back to back version. The scary part was at the top when you had to descend and could not see the slope.

The Gipsy was available with various options that allowed the Gipsy to carry out many tasks.

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Welding

Austin Gipsy0031
A belt drive that can power various attachments


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It was in the annual two weeks shut-down in July 1960, that the Gipsy track was transferred from East Works Longbridge to Adderley Park Birmingham and installed in No1 Machine Shop, as the Longbridge factory space was needed for the Mini engine production. So all the Series I were made at Longbridge, with Adderley Park now producing the Series II Gipsy. This also meant that the Experimental Department also moved from Longbridge.

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Gipsy Experimental Dept. Adderley Park

Note the Gipsy on the left is a military version which has quarter bumpers added above the standard bumper. The next Gipsy is the department's recovery vehicle.

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Gipsy production line at Adderley Park

Series II

There were various detail changes made to the suspension and steering in the Series II to improve cornering and reduce tyre wear, the 'Flexitor' unit had now a softer rubber compound, and because of problems with the trailing arm cracking under harsh conditions, heavier gauge metal was now used. The hydraulic shock absorbers were replaced with lever type dampers, and the ground clearance was improved. The steering-box was repositioned and now had a split track-rod, which was necessary because of the increased wheel travel afforded by the new 'Flexitor' units. As the Gipsy has to be filled up with fuel in remote places, the fuel tank now has a filler neck that can be extended to make it easier to fill from a jerrican.

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LWB (111 inches) Pick-Up


A long wheel base version was added at 111 inches just one inch longer that the Land Rover, with heavy duty leaf springs connected to a beam axle at the back with the 'Flexitor' system at the front. There were various body changes, the most obvious were the new fresh air vents mounted on the front wings, below the windscreen were added a larger ventilator. The doors were now conventional with a proper galvanised handles and sliding glass windows. A pick-up version was also available which had a fibre-glass hard top, and had a payload of 15 cwt. A change was made to the transfer box, so that with the now two levers, so that both high or low ratios could be selected in four-wheel drive.


It was in 1962 that to get some publicity a Series II SWB Gipsy with a team of London University Students, completed the climb up Britain highest mountain, Ben Nevis, just 4,406 ft to the summit.

Gipsy Ben Nevis
Looking at the task in hand

Austin-Gipsy-Ben-Nevis
Nearly there


Attempts were made to dislodge Land Rover from their monopoly of supplying vehicles to the Armed Force but this was never very successful. In fact less than twenty were supplied, although the government did order several hundred for the AFS in the even of a nuclear attack. They remained in Government hands for nearly 30 years in storage. They were then sold off, much to the delight of collectors, who were able to purchase virtually new vehicles that were almost 30 years old, the ultimate GARAGE sale for Gipsy enthusiasts.

Market research shown that there was a need for more variants to fulfil the requirements of customers around the world. The Gipsy's were imported into various countries around the world, the only Gipsy's built outside the UK, was in Bogotá, in Colombia, South America by a company called Colmotores who assembled them from (CKD) complete knocked down kits, the venture only lasted about 3 years.

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Austin-Gipsy-GM10-15-adv
G4 M10 was SWB G4 M15 was LWB

Time for another update, for the Series III to be announced, but at the end of 1962, the replacement was called Series IV, and was given the title G4, of which no less that 25 different versions were now available. The standard suspension was now the semi-elliptic springs with beam axles. One of the main reasons for abandoning the Flextor, was the imprecise steering, it was on the wooly side, although it was very predictable. The 'Flexitor' version was still available al-round on the Short Wheel Base (SWB) and only on the front for the LWB, as it did give a more car like ride.


Austin Gipsy
G4 Chassis and suspension


There were various advantages in using the beam axle, as going over bumps, the axle moved with the semi-elliptic springs allowing ground clearance to be maintained and the steering was more precise on the road. A bonus also was that on the short wheelbase version the turning circle was reduced from 42 ft to 35 ft and on the long wheelbase from 53 ft to just 43 ft.

Power from the petrol engine was increased by 10 bhp to 72 at 4,000 rpm, although the torque only increased by 2 lbs/ft to 112 lbs/ft at 1,500 rpm. The diesel engine now produced max power of 55 bhp at 3,500 rpm and the torque figure of 89 lbs/ft at 2,800 rpm. With the increased power the transmission was still well within its capacity to cope, in fact the transmission was though by many to be superior to the Land Rover, as it was possible to change into high or low ratios whilst on the move.

Gipsy-G4-Front-End
New Front Styling

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Rear Lights & Steps

Although it still looked like a Gipsy, one of the obvious changes was the split front grille with a curved bottom part, which was detachable for installation of a winch and gave easy access to the steering box. The front bumper now had towing eyes, the fresh air vents on the front were now on the side near the doors. At the rear the lights were now flush with the rear panel, and protected by a handle like guard.

Gipsy-G4-Facia

There were improvements inside with the instruments now in front of the driver in a full-length facia, in the centre as an optional matching ammeter and tachometer. On the passengers side was a lockable glove compartment and grab-handle, with more sound proofing, and improved seating and with matching door trims and armrests made it more comfortable to drive. The stalk on the steering column operated the horn and dip switch.

With twenty-five standard models available along with numerous options, there was a model that would cater for all customers needs. One unusual standard model that you could order was a Fire Tender version.

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Longbridge Works Fire Tender MK II

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Morris Engines Fire Tender

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Austin Gipsy Fire Tender at Unipart Oxford
The occasion was the retirement of the Superintendent

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For people who wanted to have their own body type, it was available as chassis - scuttle from the factory. If you did not need four wheel drive, it was possible to order it with only rear wheel drive. With this latest version the Gipsy was slowly beginning to make its mark in the market place. Plans were been made to increase production. when the Adderley Park factory had a major fire in 1963, which resulted in some lost orders. The Flexitor suspension option was dropped in 1965, and the G4 was now slowly gaining recognition in the market place.

It was at this stage that plans were considered to give the Body a major face lift. Artist impression on what was been considered is below. I thing that if it had been produced as shown, it would have lost its rugged charm.


Gipsy New Model

In 1966 the merger between BMC and Jaguar took place and in 1968 it joined forces with Leyland Motor Corporation. With the new company BLMC making two competing ranges of four-wheel-drive vehicles, Land Rover and Austin, it was not too long before the Austin Gipsy was phased out.

Series I

Date when launched February 1958

Discontinued in March 1960
Total produced 6,418 Longbridge build

Engine
2,199 cc 62 bhp at 4,000 rpm Max torque 110 lbs/ft at 1,500 rpm
Diesel
2,178 cc 55 bhp at 3,100 rpm Max torque 89 lbs/ft at 2,800


Main measurements
Length 11ft 8.9ins Width 5ft 6.8ins Height 6ft 2.8ins
Wheelbase 7ft 6ins Track front 4ft 7ins rear 4ft 6ins


Price ex Works £650



Series II Adderley Park Build

Date when launched March 1960

Discontinued in October 1962
Total Adderley Park Build 14,790 (Series II & VI)

Engine
Petrol
2,199 cc 62 bhp at 4,000 rpm Max torque 110 lbs/ft at 1,500 rpm
Diesel
2,178 cc 55 bhp at 3,500 rpm Max torque 89 lbs/ft at 2,800

Main measurements SWB
Length 11ft 8.9ins Width 5ft 6.8ins Height 6ft 2.8ins
Wheel Base 7ft 6ins Track front 4ft 7ins rear 4ft 6ins

Main measurements LWB
Length 13ft 7.8ins Width 5ft 6.8ins Height 6ft 2ins
Wheelbase 9ft 3ins Track front 4ft 7ins rear 4ft 6ins


Price ex Works (Sept 1960) Petrol £650 Diesel £755

Series IV Adderley Park Build.

Date when launched Oct 1962
Discontinued 1969

GM 10 was the SWB
GM 15 was the LWB

Price ex Works
Oct 1965 SWB Petrol £680 Diesel £785
--------- --LWB Diesel £750 Diesel £860

All measurements were the same as the Series II


Engine Power was increased only on the Petrol
Petrol 2,199 cc 72 bhp at 4,000 rpm Max torque 112lbs/ft at 1,500 rpm
Diesel 2,178 cc 55 bhp at 3,500 rpm Max torque 89lbs/ft at 2,800 rpm

Main measurements SWB
Length 11ft 8.9ins Width 5ft 6.8ins Height 6ft 2.8ins
Wheelbase 7ft 6ins Track front 4ft 7ins rear 4ft 6ins

Main measurements LWB
Length 13ft 7.9ins Width 5ft 6.8ins Height 6ft 2ins
Wheelase 9ft 3ins Track front 4ft 7ins rear 4ft 6ins


The Series I was only available in Fawn, then a Dark Green was added.
With the Series II it was increased to four colours. Fawn, Green. Blue and Grey.
Finally the Series IV had old English White, Dove Grey, Haze Blue and Almond Green, and for the Fire Tender a Bright Red.


Brochures Pictures and Adverts
also Special Vehicles


Gipsy-Pty

This conversion was carried out in Pietersburg SA by Mr J T Wallace, and carried six people, three of them in the front of the self build caravan. It travelled 10,800 miles including the Sahara and managed seventeen MPG. Gross vehicle weight was 2 tons.

Gipsy-Cadbury

In 1962, under the auspices of the Bournville Youth Project scheme, Project Crusader, four young Cadbury employees motored to the Holy land.



Gipsy-Caravan

Gipsy-Recovery-vehicles
Kennings 19 Gipsy recovery vehicles

Gipsy-Trailer
Now you can buy a trailer for your Gipsy

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Handing over the keys to the Gipsy at Woburn Abbey

Gipsy-Coal-trailer
Gipsy, trailer and equipment weighed 4tons 8cwt

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Manchester Fire Brigade on exercise at Bradford Colliery